Dr Andy Gardner


Dyers Brae 19
tel. 01334 463385
fax. 01334 463366

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest – gene, individual, society – and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans.

For more information about my research and PhD / postdoc opportunities in my lab, visit my website at http://synergy.st-andrews.ac.uk/gardner/.



Faria, G, Varela, S & Gardner, A 2018, 'The relation between R. A. Fisher’s sexy-son hypothesis and W. D. Hamilton’s greenbeard effect' Evolution Letters.
Davies, N & Gardner, A 2018, 'Monogamy promotes altruistic sterility in insect societies' Royal Society Open Science.
O'Brien, S, Hesse, E, Luján, A, Hodgson, D, Gardner, A & Buckling, A 2018, 'No effect of intraspecific relatedness on public goods cooperation in a complex community' Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/evo.13479
Best, R, Ruxton, GD & Gardner, A 2018, 'Intragroup and intragenomic conflict over chemical defense against predators' Ecology and Evolution, vol 8, no. 6, pp. 3322-3329. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3926
Gardner, A 2018, Group selection. in Oxford Bibliographies in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press.
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