University of St Andrews

Dr Andy Gardner

Dyers Brae
University of St Andrews
St Andrews
KY16 9TH

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest – gene, individual, society – and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans.

For more information about my research and PhD / postdoc opportunities in my lab, visit my website at



Micheletti, AJC, Ruxton, GD & Gardner, A 2017, 'Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Faria, GS, Varela, SAM & Gardner, A 2017, 'Sexual selection modulates genetic conflicts and patterns of genomic imprinting' Evolution, vol Early View. DOI: 10.1111/evo.13153
Gardner, A 2017, Group selection. in Reference Module in Life Sciences. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.06485-2
Gardner, A 2016, 'The strategic revolution' Cell, vol 166, no. 6, pp. 1345-1348. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.033
Davies, N, Ross, L & Gardner, A 2016, 'The ecology of sex explains patterns of helping in arthropod societies' Ecology Letters, vol 19, no. 8, pp. 862-872. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12621
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